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             DYNASTIES : First Intermediate Period (2213 - 1991 BC)

9th and 10th dynasty
  The years following the death of Pepi II are most obscure. The only person from this era to have left an impression on posterity is a woman called Nitokris who appears to have acted as king. There are no contemporary records but Herodotus wrote of her:

"She killed hundreds of Egyptians to avenge the king, her brother, whom his subjects had killed, and had forced her to succeed. She did this by constructing a huge underground chamber. Then invited to a banquet all those she knew to be responsible for her brother's death. When the banquet was underway, she let the river in on them, through a concealed pipe. After this fearful revenge, she flung herself into a room filled with embers, to escape her punishment."

For a time petty warlords ruled the provinces. Then from the city of Herakleopolis there emerged a ruling family led by one Khety who for a time held sway over the whole country. However, this was short lived and the country split into two, the north ruled from Herakleopolis and the south ruled from Thebes.

Whereas the Theban dynasty was stable, kings succeeded one another rapidly at Herakleopolis. There was continual conflict between the two lands which was resolved in the 11th dynasty.

11th dynasty
Intef I
Intef II
Intef III
Mentuhotep I Mentuhotep II Mentuhotep III
The Middle Kingdom begins with the reunification of the Egypt under Mentuhotep I who ousted the kings of Herakleopolis. He assumed the Horus name Divine of the White Crown, implicitly claiming all of Upper Egypt. This was later changed to Uniter of the Two Lands. His remarkable mortuary complex at Dayr al-Bahri was the architectural inspiration for Hatshepsut's temple which was built alongside some 500 years later
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Credit Mark Millmore

Dynasties History Predynastic