: Archaic Period (3050 - 2705 BC)
to the first dynasty Egypt was divided into two lands.
The unifier of these lands was Menes, known as the first
mortal king of Egypt. The Greek historian Herodotus, records
that this king founded the capital, Memphis, by damming
the Nile to reclaim land for the city.During this time
papyrus was invented and as a consequence writing was
used as an administrative government tool. This created
conditions for prosperity, which can be seen in the magnificent
artefacts from this period that have been found.
the end of the 1st dynasty there appears to have been
rival claimants for the throne. The successful claimant's
Horus name, Hetepsekhemwy, translates as "peaceful
in respect of the two powers" this may be a reference
to the opposing gods Horus and Seth, or an understanding
reached between two rival factions. But the political
rivalry was never fully resolved and in time the situation
worsened into conflict. The fourth pharaoh, Peribsen,
took the title of Seth instead of Horus and the last ruler
of the dynasty, Khasekhemwy, took both titles. A Horus/Seth
name meaning "arising in respect of the two powers,"
and "the two lords are at peace in him."