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             DYNASTIES : Second Intermediate Period (1668 - 1570 BC)

14th dynasty
  The Middle Kingdom fell because of the weakness of its later kings, which lead to Egypt being invaded by an Asiatic desert people called the Hyksos. These invaders made themselves kings and held the country for more than two centuries. The word Hyksos goes back to an Egyptian phrase meaning "ruler of foreign lands". The Jewish historian Josephus (1st century AD) mentions them. He depicts the new rulers as sacrilegious invaders who despoiled the land but with the exception of the title Hyksos they presented themselves as Egyptian kings and appear to have been accepted as such. They tolerated other lines of kings within the country, both those of the 17th dynasty and the various minor Hyksos who made up the 16th dynasty.
15th dynasty
Apepi I
Apepi II
The Hyksos, sometimes referred to as the Shepherd Kings or Desert Princes, sacked the old capital of Memphis and built their capital at Avaris, in the Delta. The dynasty consisted of five or six kings, the best-known being Apepi I, who reigned for up to 40 years.
16th dynasty
Their rule brought many technical innovations to Egypt, from bronze working, pottery and looms to new musical instruments and musical styles. New breeds of animals and crops were introduced. But the most important changes was in the area of warfare; composite bows, new types of daggers and scimitars, and above all the horse and chariot. In many ways the Hyksos modernised Egypt and Ultimately Egypt was to benefit from their rule.
17th dynasty
Intef VII
Tao I
Tao II
While the Hyksos ruled northern Egypt a new line of native rulers was developing in Thebes. They controlled the area from Elephantine in the south, to Abydos in the middle of the country. The early rulers made no attempt to challenge the Hyksos but an uneasy truce existed between them. However, the later rulers rose against the Hyksos and a number of battles were fought. King Tao II, also know as Seqenenre, was probably killed in one of these battles since his mummy shows evidence of terrible head wounds. It was to be one of his sons Ahmose, the founder of the Eighteenth dynasty, who was to expel the Hyksos from Egypt.
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Credit Mark Millmore

Dynasties History Predynastic