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             DYNASTIES : Second Intermediate Period (1668 - 1570 BC)

12th dynasty
Amenemhet I
Sesostris I
Amenemhet II
Sesostris II
Sesostris III
Amenemhet III Amenemhet IV
Queen Sobeknefru
Amenemhet I moved the capital back to Memphis. There was a revival of Old Kingdom artistic styles.

He later took his son, Sesostris as his co-regent. During the 10 years of joint rule Sesostris undertook campaigns in Lower Nubia which led to its conquest. Amenemhet was murdered during Sesostris' absence on a campaign in Libya, but Sesostris was able to maintain his hold on the throne and consolidated his father's achievements,

Sesostris III reorganised Egypt into four regions, the northern and southern halves of the Nile Valley and the eastern and western Delta. He and his successor Amenemhet III left a striking artistic legacy in the form of statuary depicting them as ageing, careworn rulers.

It was during this period that the written language was regularised in its classical form of Middle Egyptian. The first body of literary texts was composed in this form, although several are ascribed to Old Kingdom authors. The most important of these is the "Instruction for Merikare," a discourse on kingship and moral responsibility.

Queen Sobeknefru, the first female monarch marked the end of the dynastic line.
13th dynasty
Intef IV
Sobekhotep II
Sobekhotep III
Neferhotep I
Sobekhotep IV
Neferhotep II
The true chronology of the 13th dynasty is rather vague since there are few surviving monuments from this period. There were many kings who reigned for a short period, were not of a single family and some were even born commoners. The last fifty years represents a gradual decline. It seems that after the death of Ay, the eastern Delta broke away under its own petty kings (14th dynasty). Even less is known about this dynasty.

Asiatic immigration became widespread, the north eastern Delta being settled by successive waves of Palestinians.
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Credit Mark Millmore

Dynasties History Predynastic