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             DYNASTIES : Old Kingdom (2705 - 2213 BC)

3rd dynasty
This period is one of the landmarks of human history. A prosperous age and the appearance of the worlds first great monumental building - the Pyramid. The artistic masterpieces in the tombs of the nobles show the martial wealth of this timeDjoser - one of the outstanding kings of Egypt. His Step Pyramid at Saqqara is the first large stone building and the forerunner of later pyramids.
4th dynasty
Egypt was able to accomplish the ambitious feat of the Giza pyramids because there had been a long period of peace and no threats of invasion. So the energy of the Egyptians was spent in cultivating art to its highest forms.The fourth dynasty came from Memphis and the fifth from the south in Elephantine. The transition from one ruling family to another appears to have been peaceful.
5th dynasty
Neferirkara Kakai
Shepseskara Isi
Menkauhor Akauhor Djedkara Isesi
The first two kings of the fifth dynasty, were sons, Khentkaues, who was a member of the fourth dynasty royal family. There was an institutionalisation of officialdom and high officials for the first time came from outside the royal family. The pyramids are smaller and less solidly constructed than those of the fourth dynasty, but the carvings from the mortuary temples are well preserved and of the highest quality.There are surviving papyri from this period which demonstrate well developed methods of accounting and record keeping. They document the redistribution of goods between the royal residence, the temples, and officials.
6th dynasty
Pepi I
Pepi II
There are many inscriptions from the sixth dynasty. These include records of trading expeditions to the south from the reigns of Pepi I. One of the most interesting is a letter written by Pepi II.The pyramid of Pepi II at southern Saqqara is the last major monument of the Old Kingdom. None of the names of kings of the short-lived seventh dynasty are known and the eighth dynasty shows signs of political decay.
7th and 8th dynasties
    At About this time the Old Kingdom state collapsed. Egypt simultaneously suffered political failure and environmental disaster. There was famine, civil disorder and a rise in the death rate. The climate of Northeast Africa became dryer, and combined with the low inundations of the Nile, the cemeteries were becoming rapidly full.
 Dynasties 1 to 2  Dynasties 3 to 8  Dynasties 9 to 11  Dynasties 12 to 13  Dynasties 14 to 17  Dynasties 18 to 20


Credit Mark Millmore


Dynasties History Predynastic